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Surgery 101

Welcome to Surgery 101, a series of podcasts produced with the help of the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. The podcasts are intended to serve as brief introductions or reviews of surgical topics for medical students. We've aimed to cover a single topic in between 10-20 minutes so that you can quickly get a good idea of the basic concepts involved. Every episode is divided into chapters and concludes with several key points to summarize the topic. We are always keen to receive your feedback on our podcasts, and we are accepting suggestions for additional topics. 'Surgery 101' was created by Dr Parveen Boora and Dr Jonathan White, and is supported by the Department of Surgery at the University of Alberta. Our 2010 series of podcasts are brought to you by the Undergrad Surgery Mobile Podcasting Studio Team which is: Jonathan and many wonderful students, with the assistance of the surgeons of Edmonton.
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Sign up for PREMIUM ACCESS for Surgery 101 Notes.

There are PDF Notes available for every Surgery 101 podcast. 

Jan 20, 2021

Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS).

After listening to this podcast, listeners will be able to:

Define and recognize SBS in post-surgical patients

Describe the pathophysiology of SBS

List prognostic factors for SBS

Describe the basis and indications for medical and surgical therapy for SBS.

 

Jan 13, 2021

The parathyroid glands are important organs implicated in the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Due to their small size, complicated physiology and variable location they proved difficult for early clinicians and scientists to fully understand. Today, disease of the parathyroid glands is a commonly recognized endocrine disorder that is often managed surgically.

By the end of this podcast, listeners will be able to: 

  1. Describe the anatomy and function of parathyroid glands 
  2. Discuss common pathophysiology involved in parathyroid disease
  3. Outline the management of parathyroid disease
  4. List complications of parathyroid surgery 
Jan 6, 2021

Obstructive sleep apnea or OSA is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder. Repetitive collapse of the upper airway during sleep causes obstructive apneas, hypopneas, and sleep fragmentation. OSA is distinguished from central sleep apnea which is attributable to an underlying neurological cause. The prevalence of OSA estimated between 1.5-4 percent and is more common in older males. In this episode, we will discuss the relevant anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation as well as surgical evaluation, management, and complications. 

By the end of this podcast, listeners will  be able to: 

  1. Define obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
  2. Discuss anatomy related to OSA
  3. Discuss surgical management options for OSA
  4. List complications of surgery for OSA

 

Dec 16, 2020

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) attempts to restore normal physiologic function of the sinuses via correction of underlying anatomical abnormalities and obstruction. The term functional refers to strategies aimed at preserving the natural drainage pathways of the sinuses. It is important to note that FESS does not cure sinonasal disease but rather facilitates the healing process by improving sinus ventilation and drainage allowing for gradual resolution of mucosal disease. Post-surgical changes also facilitate the delivery of saline and intranasal steroid medications to the paranasal sinus cavities. In this episode, we will discuss the relevant anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation and treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with a specific emphasis on functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)

Learning Objectives

  1. Describe the anatomy and function of the paranasal sinuses
  2. Define functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)
  3. Define chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)
  4. List the complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)
Dec 9, 2020

Hoarseness is a common complaint in primary care. It denotes a dysphonia originating from the vocal cords of the larynx. It describes any change in voice quality. It is important to remember it is a symptom of underlying pathology and not a diagnosis. In this episode, we will discuss the relevant anatomy, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of common causes of hoarseness.

By the end of this podcast, listeners will be able to:

  1. Define hoarseness
  2. Explain common etiologies contributing to hoarseness
  3. List the treatment options for the common causes of hoarseness 
Dec 3, 2020

This is the 4th episode in a 4-part series covering complications at the time of vaginal delivery.  This episode is brought to you by Leah Rusnell a fourth-year medical student at the University of Saskatchewan in Regina. Yesterday, we discussed the delivery of twins and in this episode, we’ll look at the management of umbilical cord prolapse.

After listening to this episode, listeners will be able to:

  1. List the risk factors for umbilical cord prolapse.
  2. Describe the signs of cord prolapse that should alert suspicion for the diagnosis.
  3. Outline a management plan for cord prolapse.
Dec 2, 2020

This is the 3rd episode of a four-part series covering complications at the time of vaginal delivery. This episode is brought to you by Leah Rusnell a fourth-year medical student at the University of Saskatchewan in Regina. The previous episodes discussed operative vagina delivery and the management of breech deliveries. This episode discusses the delivery of twins and the complications associated with them.

After listening to this episode, you will be able to:

1. Identify the types of twinning based on chorionicity and amnionicity.
2. List the predisposing factors for a twin or multiple gestation pregnancy and associated risks for the mother and fetuses.
3. Outline a prenatal management plan for a twin pregnancy.
4. List the different types of presentations at the time of vaginal delivery.
5. Outline the specific considerations required at the time of labor and delivery of twins.

Dec 1, 2020

This is the 2nd episode in a 4-part series covering complications at the time of vaginal delivery.  This episode is brought to you by Leah Rusnell a fourth-year medical student at the University of Saskatchewan in Regina. Yesterday, we discussed operative vagina delivery and in this episode, we'll look at the management of breech deliveries.

After listening to this episode, learners will be able to:

  1. Define the types of breech presentation.
  2. List the risk factors for breech presentation.
  3. Outline the timing, indications, contraindications, and technique required to perform an external cephalic version.
  4. Describe the controversy surrounding vaginal delivery of a breech baby.
  5. List the contraindications to planned vaginal breech delivery.
  6. List the requirements that must be met during the breech labor and delivery process.
Nov 30, 2020

This is the 1st episode in a 4-part series covering complications at the time of vaginal delivery.  This episode is brought to you by Leah Rusnell a fourth-year medical student at the University of Saskatchewan in Regina. Today we will discuss operative vagina delivery.

After listening to this episode, learners will be able to:

1. Classify OVDs, also known as operative vaginal deliveries, and discuss the instrument options available to perform an OVD.

2. Identify the indications for and contraindications to an OVD.

3. Identify the fetal and maternal risks associated with OVD in comparison to a caesarean section.

4. List the pre-requisites and steps required to perform an OVD.

Nov 2, 2020

In this episode, we are joined by Vivian Leung,  a 3rd-year medical student from McGill University.  She will be discussing a case titled: “Chloe has a chole”, and will be reviewing the management of acute cholecystitis.  Vivian will touch upon the guidelines for antibiotic therapy, indications for urgent cholecystectomy, and the concept of risk stratification, which will serve as key information in determining whether your patient will benefit most from a surgical, versus non-surgical, management of acute cholecystitis.

After listening to this podcast, students will be able to:

  • Recall and list classification factors of uncomplicated versus complicated acute cholecystitis
  • Recognize the importance and considerations of initiating antibiotic therapy
  • Describe the concept of risk stratifying patients into low risk, versus high-risk surgical patients, and their subsequent clinical management
Oct 30, 2020

In the episode 4th-year medical student Kaishan Aravinthan from the University of Saskatchewan discusses an overview of Zenker's Diverticulum.

After listening to this episode, learners will be able to:

  1. Define the term Zenker’s Diverticulum  
  2. Identify and list the signs and symptoms of Zenker’s Diverticulum  
  3. Discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing Zenker’s Diverticulum  
  4. List and describe the various treatment options for Zenker’s Diverticulum  
Oct 28, 2020

In this episode 4th-year medical student Kaishan Aravinthan from the University of Saskatchewan discusses an overview of chronic rhinosinusitis.

After listening to this episode, learners will be able to:

  1. Describe the patient presentation of Chronic Rhinosinusitis
  2. Identify the key signs and symptoms for the diagnosis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis
  3. Differentiate and list the types of medical and surgical therapy options
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